Common Latin phrases in hearth tax documents

Sometimes you might find an occasional Latin phrase in amongst an English hearth tax listing; or in the case of the 1670 Michaelmas return for Essex that we recently published, all the way through it!

We printed a full Latin glossary in the Essex volume, but here’s my pick of the most common phrases that appear:

ac febrile = and also a forge

armiger = esquire

clericus = clergyman

comes = earl

comitissa = countess

cum duabus fabrilibus = with two forges

cum duabus focis de novo erectis = with two newly built hearths

dominus = lord, Sir, judge

elemosinaria = almshouse

exoneratio/us per certificatum = exemption/exempted by certificate

faber = smith

fabrilis = forge

festum annunciationis dominae = the feast of the Annunciation (Lady Day 25 March)

festum sancti michaelis = feast of St Michael (Michaelmas 29 September)

focus/foci = hearth/s

fornax = kiln

in vacua domo = in(for) an empty house

in marisco = in the marsh

miles ordinis balnei =  knight of the Order of the Bath

negat solver & nil habuit pro distringendum = refuses to pay and has nothing to distrain

nil ad distringendum = nothing to distrain

nil proprietas = no owner

novo erect = newly built

paupera = poor

pro speculacionem/speculationem = by the inspection of

per visum = viewed by

prenobilis dominus = the right honourable lord

prison domus placitus = prison court house

pro parte domi = for part of a house

solvit = paid

solvit iiijs pro anno pro novo erecto = paid 4 shillings for a year for a new house

tenens = tenant

tenet terram/terras =  holds lands

vacua domus nil distringendum = vacant house no distraint

vacua domo = empty house

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Twelve ‘Days’ of Christmas – part 2

Here’s the next three of our  ‘Twelve “Days” of Christmas’ – different people with the surname ‘Day’ who featured in the records of the hearth tax!

Richard Day of Chelsea parish in the county of Middlesex, paid on 3 hearths in the 1666L collection

Barbara Day of North Elmsall township in the West Riding of Yorkshire, charged for 4 hearths in the 1673L collection

William Day of Kington Parish (lower ward) in the county of Herefordshire, charged for 6 hearths in the 1664L collection

Keep watching; three more ‘days’ soon!

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Twelve ‘Days’ of Christmas feature

Between now and the big day, we will be posting our ‘Twelve “Days” of Christmas’ – different people with the surname ‘Day’ who featured in the records of the hearth tax!

Here, to get the ball rolling, are the first 3:

Nathaniel Day of Epping Upland parish in Essex, charged for 4 hearths in the 1670M collection

Widow Day of Kirkby Stephen parish in Westmorland, charged for 1 hearth in the 1670M collection

Edward Day of Cherington parish in Warwickshire, charged for 3 hearths in the 1670M collection

Keep watching; three more ‘days’ soon!

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Innovative 3D reproduction of 17th Century London

Congratulations to Pudding Lane Productions who have won the 2013 Off The Map competition for their 3D reproduction of 17th Century London, designed using references taken from the historic maps in the British Library.

The ‘flythrough’ centres around the Pudding Lane area of restoration London, although it is not always entirely clear which street is which. It would be really interesting to relate this mapping to the London hearth tax. For example, here is the entry for Pudding Lane on the eve of the Great Fire, listing the very oven that started the blaze:

  Pudding Lane The East   side  
x Richard Peele hooke & eye mkr’ 4
x Mary Collier cooper 7
  Fish Yard   
Hugh Amies porter 3
Leake p’ish clearke 2
Henry More waterbearer 1
Thomas Birt sexton 1
Widd Thomas 1
Empty. 5. 5
Empty. 4. 4
  40 76
x Mary Whittacre widd 2
George Porter plasterer 3
Widd Gander 1
Benjamin Burstow 1
Thomas Knight glasier 4
Alice Spencer 4
Empty 3
x John Bibie turner 3
x Thomas Farrinor baker 5
[&]1 oven 1
William Ludford plasterer 3
[&] 1 stop up 1
[blank] Jones 2
x Susanna Noest 3
Empty 3

The records of the 1666 hearth tax for London are very detailed and it might well be possible to tie together the document and the maps with this digital presentation; that would be very exciting!

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Monthly Random Hearth Tax Transcript

Another double-header this month but a different approach – two returns from the same parish but for different collections…

St. Mary, Bishophill, Senior, City of York

Hearth Tax, 1670L

Thomas North 2
Rob[er]t Hewitt 5
Duke of Buckingham p[ro]Mr Pawson 8
Thomas Fox 2
Antho[ny] Lund 2
Richard Moore 2
John Steadman 1
Sam[ue]ll Schoaley 2
Widdow Tesh 2
Chr Shawe 4
Peter Buttery 2
Mr Pawson p[ro] Bradley 3
Mr John Elliker 7
Mr Fran[cis] Fearnley 7
Mr John Place 5
George Mawman 2
Rob[er]t Wright 2
Mr George Ramsden 7
Mrs Dorothy Ramsden 4
Mr Morgon 2
Mr Henry Brearey p[ro] Deightons 3
Chr Wright 2
Mr John Mould 8
Geo[rge] Smyth p[ro] Balderson 2
Duke of Buckingham 29 Empty & Noe   Distress
Edw[ard] Balderson 1 Empty
Alderman Burnet p[ro] Hewitts 4 Empty
Edw[ard] Balderson p[ro] Musgrave 1
Roger Tesh 2 Empty
Jon Cooke 3 poore & Noe   Distress
Edw[ard] Weightman 1 Empty


St. Mary, Bishophill, Senior, City of York

Hearth Tax, 1674L

Thomas North 2  
Wm Sargison 2  
Widd Hewitt 5  
The Duke of   Buckingham 29  
more 8  
Mr John Moulds 8  
Thomas Fox 2  
Peter Peirson 2  
Tristram Simpson 1  
Geo: Dorite 1  
Widd Scholey 2  
Mr Morgan 2  
Widd Shawe 3  
John Cooke 1  
Peter Buttrey 2  
Mr Henry Pawson 3  
Mr Jo: Ellerker 7  
Mr Franc: Feamley 7  
Mr John Placer 5  
Mr Will[ia]m Rainsden 4  
Ald[e]r Rainsden 2  
Geo: Mawman 2  
Robert Wright 2  
Mr Geo Ramsden 7  
Mr Dorothy Ramsden 4  
Widd Wright 1  
Geo Smith 2  
Roger Tosh 4  
Robert Wyley 2  
Ri Peach 1  
George Bullocke 2  
John Steadman 1  Empty
These persons   following are discharged by Certificate    
Richard Moore 2  
George Greene 1  
Margret Walker Widd 2  
Widd Tosh 1  
Bartholl Mainman 1  
Henry Ralderstone 1  
John England 1  
John Olliver 1  
Widd Aikers 1  
Alice Richardson 1  
Mary Mosey 1  
Tristrum Simpson 1  
Ri Poultor 1  
Anne Chawe 1  

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Monthly Random Hearth Tax Transcript

This month, to catch up from January, we thought we’d post transcripts of two parishes from neighbouring counties that shared a common border.

The parish of Stanford Bishop in Broxash hundred in the county of Herefordshire

Hearth Tax, 1664L

John Tompkins gt. 4
Alexander Hancox gt. 3
Ann Giles widow 7
Richard Dymocke 2
Elizabeth Dymocke 3
William Wright 3
Richard Whitehead 2
George Fincher clre 1
William Hincksman 2
Richard Abell 2
John Vale 1
John Kinnard 1
Thomas Lane 1
Thomas Weaver 1
Ann Homes widow 1
John Deakin 1
Not Chargeable  
John Yapp 1
Francis Poolehouse 1
Richard Sterling 1
Richard Reeve sen 1
Richard Reeve iun 1
John Jenkins 1
Wm. Walker 1
Wm. Brooke 1
Wm. Hay 1
Thomas Aspery 1
Edward Aspery 1
Katherine Aspery 1
John Hay 1
Charles Paine 1
Wm. Crispe 1
Ann Kinnard 1
Ann Jones 1
Jane Bubb 1

The parish of Shelsley Beauchamp in Doddingtree hundred in the county of Worcestershire

Hearth Tax, 1664M

Richard Avenant 8
Charles Nott 3
John Noxon 2
Thomas Collins 2
James Porter 3
John Norman 2
Thomas Bryan 1
John Goode 1
Thomas Butler 2
Thomas Bushell 2
Richard Wood 1
Richard Spillsbury 2
Anthony Newman 1
Thomas Cooke 3
John Mills 6
Dorothy Mills 2
William Eaton 1
Charles Nott 3
William Barker 1
George Millman 1

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Monthly Random Hearth Tax Transcript

This month’s random hearth tax transcript is…

The parish of St Margaret, Walmgate in the City of York

Hearth Tax, 1670

Mr John Blackburne 5
Henry Agar 4
Walter Walker 2
Thomas Dawfin 4
Steph[en] Beverley 2
Rob[er]t Squire 3
Mrs Hinsley 3
John Brignall or Sam[ue]ll Daniell 3
Will[ia]m Belton 3
Thomas Towers 5
Antho[ny] Blackburne 1
Thomas Carthwright 2
Widd[ow] Lund 4
Rob[er]t Gibson 2
Ann Hardcastle 5
Will[ia]m Shawe 3
Will[ia]m Stott 3
Mardi Coulton 2
Charles Shepherd 2
Rob[er]t Stafford 3
John Pullen 1
Mr Wilkinson p[ro] Watson 2
James Coates 4
Thomas Lawrence 1
Rob[er]t Hotham 4
John Reevley 1
Henry Wray 3
Margtt Hotham 1
Richard Wray 3
John Laurence 1
James Straker 4
John Dale 1
Edward Carter 2
Nath[aniel] Day 4
John Murton 1
Empty & Noe Distress  
Robert Watson 4

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